Travel to Turkmenistan


Located between the Caspian Sea, p. Amu, and the Kopet Dag mountains Ustyurt.
Area - 488,1 thousand square meters. km.

The history of Turkmenistan comes from the ancient times. The territory of our country was one of the places of the human civilization origin. Scientists acknowledge that on the territory of Turkmenistan the major centers of culture - Djeytun, Annau, Altyn-Depe, Margiana, Parthia, later - Horezm have appeared in V-IV B.C. In view of scientific researches in Altyn-Depe and Margiana zones, the modern historians has come to the major conclusion that the territory of Southern Turkmenistan can be referred to such well known centers of human civilization as Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China. The culture which appeared on the territory of modern Turkmenistan 6-7 thousand years ago has the same direct relation to the nation of Turkmen people, which was formed much later, like ancient China and ancient India cultures to the modern peoples of China and India.

* The ancient tribes who dwelled on this territory had made up the genealogical roots of Turkmen nation. The antropologists state that the so-called European type (the oblong type of face) was inherent to the ancient population of Turkmenistan, and it is characteristic to our contemporaries too. Turkmenistan, being situated in an important geopolitical region, on a crossroad of strategic ways, was exposed to numerous conquerors' raids. Such well known ancient generals as Kurush (Kir), Dariy, Alexander Makedonskiy tried to conquer the ancient Turkmenistan. However its citizens were brave and courageous people. The horsemen struggled successfully against enemies.

On the territory of Turkmenistan there were created such high-power states as Parthian Empire, huge Seljuk Empire, Horezm, Kushan. The created Seljuk and Khorezmshahs Empires by Turkmen people were the prospering states, where large attention was given to the development of agriculture, cattle breeding, crafts, science and art. Such large cities as Merv, Nusay, Gurgench were highly developed. The palaces, caravan - sheds, temples were erected in these cities, the science was developed, the people were busy in land cultivation and cattle breeding. The goods from here were delivered not only to Europe, but also to other continents. In the markets of Rome there was a great demand for the weapon from especially strong Merv steel.
t should be mentioned, that in Middle Ages the Turkmen people played the main role in the formation of more than 40 large states outside Turkmenistan, on a vast territory of Middle, Southern, South-West Asia and at the Caucasus. Among them the well known states can be named: Kutubshakh state and Delhi soltanat, Karahinid empire, Ottoman empire, Ak-Goyunly and Gara-Goyunly states; principalities Salguridy, Artukidy.Danishmendidy and others. What has prevented the further development of the state on the territory of modern Turkmenistan? In the 13th century the country was destroyed by the most terrible and destructive Mongolian invasion, which disturbed to the further development of the material and spiritual culture of the Turkmen people. The country was turned into ruins, the beautiful cities, dams, the fertile fields were turned into ashes and it continued for two centuries.Mac build the great city there. In XVII - XIX centuries the territory of Turkmenistan saved its integrity.

The epoch of Soviet power is an ambiguous, contradictory and complicated period of the history. The emergence of the Turkmen SSR in 1924, its joining the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics were unconditionally the positive facts. On the other hand, being the republic of the totalitarian Soviet state, Turkmenistan was not the state . joying full rights, it was not independent.

In the Soviet time the productive forces of the republic received the certain development: the large deposits of valuable mineral resources were opened, the zones of agriculture were extended, the hydraulic engineering facilities were constructed. However, only the sectors supplying raw materials were developed. On October 27, 1991 the new epoch in life of Turkmen people began- the day when Turkmenistan became the independent state.



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